Saturday, May 23, 2020
Recently, in the year 2013, there was a case brought to the Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s attention that was first trialed in the district court. That caseÃ¢â¬â¢s name was Fisher vs. University of Texas. It was in this case that the plaintiff, Abigail N. Fisher filed suit against the University of Texas with the claim that the University had violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 13th Amendment. The main question that arose in the question was, Ã¢â¬Å"does the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment permit the consideration of race in undergraduate admissions decisionsÃ¢â¬ . The overall decision of the Supreme Court was that the University of Texas hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t violated the Equal Protection Clause, and in fact that they were permitted to consider race in the admissions process. I do agree with the Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s decision. I agree with said decision because the argument made by the plaintiff Fisher was weak, and the rights of life and liberty werenÃ¢â¬â¢t in any way tampered with in the admissions process that the University of Texas was going through in the situation suited. Firstly, IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to talk of how and why FisherÃ¢â¬â¢s claim and argument was weak. She didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really have a valid claim for the fact being that she was applying to a school that was trying to promote diversity at the time and still is today. A school that had an ethnic distribution of one percent American Indian, twenty percent Asian, five percent African-American, three percent Foreign, twenty-three percent Hispanic, oneShow MoreRelatedThe Equal Protection Clause Of The Fourteenth Amendment3764 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesThe equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution was at first created to protect against racial discrimination, but the Supreme Court later expanded the clause to also providing equal treatment amongst different races. The clause says, Ã¢â¬Å"No state shallÃ¢â¬ ¦deny to any person within its jurisdict ion the equal protection of the lawsÃ¢â¬ (U.S. Constitution. Art./Amend. XIV, Sec. 1.) A person could not be discriminated upon solely because of his or her race and if the law treated aRead MoreThe Equal Protection Clause From The Fourteenth Amendment1137 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Equal Protection Clause derives from the Fourteenth Amendment, which specifies Ã¢â¬Å"no state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the lawsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ As a part of the Reconstruction Amendments, the aforementioned clause was meant to ensure racial equality in the Reconstruction Period and has been applied successfully against the affirmative action. Introduced in United States v. Carolene Products Co., the strict scrutiny has been applied to the cases, in which a fundamentalRead MoreA Closer Look At The Fourteenth Amendment s Equal Protection Clause2421 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesMarkus Allard Professor Anne Redding Administrative Justice 245 20 November 2016 A Closer Look At The Fourteenth AmendmentÃ¢â¬â¢s Equal Protection Clause Our 14th amendment is perhaps the most important amendment because it helps defend some of our fundamental rights. This amendment extends the due process procedure to all citizens when trying to deprive them of life, liberty, or property. The amendment also ensures that everyone born in the United States or naturalized is guaranteed citizenship. ThisRead MoreThe Fourteenth And Fourteenth Amendment1018 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendment Want to learn how everyone is equal? On May 17, 1954 the United States Supreme Court came to a decision that had immediate repercussions on the lives of black and white American citizens. Historic moment experiences have continually characterized these people into distinct racial and social entities. The thirteenth and fourteenth amendment had a positive affect on the problem of racism and segregation.The thirteenth amendment was created to abolishRead MoreThe Road Brown V. Board Of Education Of Topeka ( 347 U.s.1455 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHistorical Setting The road to Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (347 U.S. 74 (1954)), is littered with many Supreme Court cases that have battled for equality in education. The Fourteenth Amendment strengthened the legal rights of newly slaves and became the stomping ground for many Supreme Court decisions. There were six separate cases concerning the issue of segregation in public schools that was heard and consolidated into the one case named Brown v. Board of Education. The cases includedRead MoreThe Constitution Of The United States1552 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescountry for over 200 years. The Bill of Rights, also known has the first Ten Amendments of the Constitution, has protected the unalienable rights of citizens in the United State. Selective incorporation was used in order to nationalize the Bill of Rights and protect the immunities, rights, and privileges of all United States citizens within the states. The success of Selective Incorporation, along with the 14th Amendment, ensured that states could not put in place any laws that took away the constitutionalRead More 14th Amendment -EQUAL PROTECTION UNDER THE LAW Essay939 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages EQUAL PROTECTION UNDER THE LAW In school especially, as well as throughout our daily lives, we learn in America to live by the idea of freedom and equality for all. We do not allow race, class, or creed to determine a personÃ¢â¬â¢s stature in the community. It may seem as if this is the standard of society, but these ideas of equality have been fought over since the beginning of written history, and even in America today, prejudice still exists. To address these and similar problems, the founding fathersRead MoreEssay on Affirmative Action1018 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesconsideration. The Fourteenth Amendment states that no person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. As a result, Affirmative action is not consistent with the Fourteenth Amendment. In this essay, I will first discuss the violation of Affirmative Ac tion against the Fourteenth Amendment. Second, how AffirmativeRead MoreThe Rights Of State Governments And The Federal Government1442 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages1868, the Fourteenth Amendment was ratified stating Ã¢â¬Å"All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protectionRead MoreLoving V. Virginia, Introduction, Facts, Legal Background1567 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLoving v. Virginia Interracial marriage: Respecting the Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment. I. INTRODUCTION This case note will examine the 1967 landmark Supreme Court case of Loving v. Virginia. The Loving v. Virginia case touched on constitutional principles including equality, federalism, and liberty. Just over 30 years ago, it was a crime for interracial couples in Virginia to marry, or to live as husband and wife. Prior to the 1967 case of Loving v. Virginia
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Giotto di Bondone was known for being the earliest artist to paint more realistic figures rather than the stylized artwork of the medieval and Byzantine eras Giotto is considered by some scholars to be the most important Italian painter of the 14th century.Ã His focus on emotion and natural representations of human figures would be emulated and expanded upon by successive artists, leading Giotto to be called the Father of the Renaissance. Places of Residence and Influence Italy: Florence Important Dates Born: c. 1267Died: Jan. 8, 1337 About Giotto di Bondone Though many stories and legends have circulated about Giotto and his life, very little can be confirmed as fact. He was born in Colle di Vespignano, near Florence, in 1266 or 1267, or, if Vasari is to be believed, 1276. His family was probably farmers. Legend has it that while he was tending goats he drew a picture on a rock and that the artist Cimabue, who happened to be passing by, saw him at work and was so impressed with the boys talent that he took him into his studio as an apprentice.Ã Whatever the actual events, Giotto appears to have been trained by an artist of great skill, and his work is clearly influenced by Cimabue. Giotto is believed to have been short and ugly. He was personally acquainted with Boccaccio, who recorded his impressions of the artist and severalÃ stories of his wit and humor; these were included by Giorgio Vasari in the chapter on GiottoÃ in hisÃ Lives of the Artists.Ã GiottoÃ was married and at the time of his death, he was survived by at least six children. The Works of Giotto There exists no documentation to confirm any artwork as having been painted by Giotto di Bondone. However, most scholars agree on several of his paintings. As an assistant to Cimabue, Giotto is believed to have worked on projects in Florence and other places in Tuscany, and in Rome. Later, he also traveled to Naples and Milan. Giotto almost undoubtedly painted the Ognissanti Madonna (currently in the Uffizi in Florence) and the fresco cycle in the Arena Chapel (also known as the Scrovegni Chapel)Ã at Padua, considered by some scholars to be his masterwork.Ã In Rome, Giotto is believed to have createdÃ the mosaic ofÃ Christ Walking on the WaterÃ over the entrance to St. PeterÃ¢â¬â¢s, theÃ altarpiece at theÃ Vatican Museum, andÃ the fresco ofÃ Boniface VIII Proclaiming the JubileeÃ inÃ St. John Lateran.Ã Perhaps his best-known work is that done in Assisi, in the Upper Church of San Francesco: a cycle of 28 frescoes depicting the life of Saint Francis of Assisi. This monumental work depicts the entire life of the saint, instead of isolated events, as had been the tradition in Ã¢â¬â¹earlier medieval artwork. The authorship of this cycle, like most of the works attributed to Giotto, has been called into question; but it is very likely that he not only worked in the church but designed the cycle and painted most of the frescoes. Other important works by Giotto include the Sta Maria Novella Crucifix, completed sometime in the 1290s, and the Life of St. John the Baptist fresco cycle, completed c. 1320. Giotto was also known as a sculptor and architect. Though there is no concrete evidence for these assertions, he was appointed chief architect of the workshop of Florence cathedral in 1334. The Fame of Giotto Giotto was a much-sought-after artist during his lifetime. He appears in works by his contemporaryÃ DanteÃ as well asÃ Boccaccio.Ã Vasari said of him, Giotto restored the link between art and nature. Giotto di Bondone died in Florence, Italy, on January 8, 1337.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
There is nothing wrong to study RizalÃ¢â¬â¢s works and doings. For me, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a good thing to know and understand his history. Rizal became a hero because of his accomplishments not because he was made to be. We will write a custom essay sample on Rizal as Inspiration or any similar topic only for you Order Now In his writings, he mentioned characters and scenarios related in reality. It focuses his ideals and misery in our country. Indeed, he is an inspiration but only some people sees that. Many Filipino knows Rizal is our national hero and being a hero is what they knew about him and that is wrong. It is more than that. It is not enough only knowing him as a hero. We should also understand and learn something from him. Fighting for a freedom of a country is not a simple thing. I know you will needed so much courage, knowledge and a presence of mind. Like him, he used the power of his mind to fight for good and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s we should try to imitate from him. The social cancer Rizal mentioned still exist today and we are the one living in present so I think we should at same as him. But not literally same. Being patriotic is also what made me inspire him. His selfless love in our country is remarkable. The values he has is also what we need to have. He inspired readers through his words. His real words. Rizal has become the constant model that inspires man and woman across the land to dream and work for its realization no matter the cost is brings for the sake of nationhood and promoting the liberty for the people. He also proven education is the answer to our struggle nation. So we student should value education because in the future we are the one who will get benefit from it. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why I will strive hard to get my diploma because I believe someday I can also do remarkable things for our next generation. Education will helped us broadened our minds, so that weÃ¢â¬â¢re not confined to our countries and comfort zones anymore. How to cite Rizal as Inspiration, Essay examples
Friday, May 1, 2020
Question: What Is The Impact Of Sadness And Anxiety On Individuals? Answer: Introduction Several studies reveal that an estimated five percent of the working population have emotional disorders linked to depression or anxiety (Sanderson Andrews, 2006). There is evidence that these disorders impair the ability of individuals to perform better at work (Lagerveld et al., 2010). Ashkanasy, Zerbe Hrtel (2000) notes that in most cases, people a to think so much about work at the expense of those people with emotional problems, or thinking rationally and in unemotional economic terms concern the interaction between the people and the organization. In a study conducted by Westen, Burton Kowalski (2006), it is noted that though not some people experience emotional problems, everybody experience varied emotions, in fact, various and different emotions in a single day. Several perspectives have explored how emotions influence decision-making (Brief Wiess, 2002). Critical Review This review intends to assess the potential impact of depression and anxiety on how people make decisions and interactions that are critical to organizational behavior. As such, this review is focused on differences in sadness and anxiety experienced by many workers, instead of emotional disorders. This review starts by giving an outline of theories about emotions and moods, specifically sadness and anxiety which affects the decision-making and judgments of individuals in an organization. Further, the review intends to examine the effect of sadness and anxiety on interpersonal interaction, interpersonal perception, and decision-making. Relevant Theories Numerous psychological theories posit that when individuals feel anxious or sadness, it impairs their judgment, decision-making, and evaluation regarding affect-congruent direction (Bower, 1991). In this regard, the decisions made will be related to the general valence of an individual's mood (Clore Gasper, 2000). Evidence has shown that when people are sad, they tend to make bad or negative decisions. For instance, if a company offers a reward, an individual who is sad can view it in a negative manner as opposed to a happy person (Forgas George, 2001). The affect-congruent factors that are used to evaluate how a result is valued may influence employees decisions to pursue rewards in an organization (Vroom, 1964). The affect-congruency perspective has an inherent limitation because it effectively makes an assumption that every emotion of similar valence, for example, sadness and anxiety leads to same outcome (Raghunathan Pham, 1999). Studies done by Learner, Small Loewenstein (2004) have negated this assertion by revealing that disgust and sadness have varied impact on an individual regarding decisions made for economic reasons. Gino, Brooks Schweitzer (2012) argued that anger and anxiety have varied effects on how people acquire and use of advice to inform their decisions. Thus, if affect-congruity denoted an overall effect, as posited by Mayer, Gaschke, Braverman Evans (1992), then all bad moods ought to lead to similar outcomes. There are other theories that explain the how decision-making is influenced by sadness and anxiety. The Different Affect Different Effect model, posits that that sadness and anxiety lead to various ways of thinking, that ends up in different outcomes in a similar situation as far as decision-making is concerned (Ragunathan Corfman, 2004). The DADE argues that when individuals feel anxious, they get motivation to be keen to the surrounding and avoid eminent risks and threats (Maner et al., 2007; Raghunathan Corfman, 2004). According to Eysenck, Payne, Santos (2006), there is need to worry about a threat or something that is about to go wrong somewhere. Unfortunately, when people feel sad, it means that something bad has already happened (Essence et al., 2006). As a result of this, based on DADE, people are motivated to be happy again and strive to seek pleasure and results instead of paying attention to threats and risks. While affect-congruity maintains that sadness and anxiety strongly affect the outcome of a particular decision, the DADE model posits that anxiety and sadness affect the outcome in different measures and direction. Several theorists have that anxiety affects an individuals information-processing capacity because they often focus much of their attention on negativity hence ending up with inadequate cognitive resources (Darke, 1988; Eysenck, 1992). Evidence suggests that sadness and anxiety might interfere with an individuals ability meaningful judgments (Mui, Heilman, Houser, 2008). Recent studies have proposed that when individuals experience anxiety, they get the motivation to counteract the limitations placed on their cognitive resources (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos Calvo, 2007). An issue that arises out of this argument is that the additional effort meant to overcome these cognitive limitations is more often questionable. This is so particular in circumstances where the task is m entally demanding such as a complex decision-making. Some scholars have argued against the notion that anxiety impairs decision-making and information-processing by positing that sadness may as well contribute to enhanced decision-making and information-processing (Bless, 2001). There are also scholars who support the arguments of the DADE model by arguing that sadness signals to think deeply whenever there is something happening or about to happen a so as to fix it (Lerner et al., 2004). Darke (1988) argues that whereas sadness limits an individuals information-processing, (Bless, 2001) sadness does not. Forgas (2002) opines that sadness motivates thorough, deep, and analytical information-processing. Impact of Anxiety on Interpersonal Perception Interaction among people in an organization is very crucial. Additionally, efficient communication and prudent interpersonal decision-making promote smooth running of an organization (Ivancevich, Konopaske Matteson, 2011). It suffices to point out that there are several ways sadness and anxiety systematically affect interpersonal interactions, decisions, and perception in an organizational contexts. People have been found to engage in negative evaluation of their colleagues, and this is consistent with the arguments of affect-congruity (Forgas, 1990). On the contrary, some findings have shown marked inconsistency. In a study done by Lambert, Khan, Lickel Fricke (1997) sad people showed a positive evaluation of their colleagues at work. Sad people are believed to focus more on negative thoughts and hence influence the decisions that they make (Forgas, 1995). Furthermore, in circumstances where people develop an accurate impression of others, the deep thinking by sad individuals may lead to a less accurate evaluation on a second guess (Ambady Gray, 2002). Anxiety leads to inaccurate decisions and biased judgments as one may rely heavily on stereotypes (Curtis Locke, 2005, 2007). The influence of sadness and anxiety on interpersonal perception has far reaching consequences on work-performance and decision-making. Decisions made by the human resource management may be influenced by sadness and anxiety (McCarthy Goffin, 2004; Nguyen Ryan, 2008). The attitude and fair judgment of colleagues by their abilities and inabilities may be biased (Forgas Bower, 1987). Suffices to mention is the fact that chronic depression and anxiety that leads to incessant negative or stereotypic evaluations and expectations leads to negativity in an organization (Ivancevich et al., 2011). Impact of Sadness and Anxiety on Negotiation Ivancevich et al. (2011) point out that bargaining and negotiation are crucial in every organization for better results. Negotiation is a kind of decision-making that entails proper planning and preparation; all which are necessary for attaining optimum mutual result in an organization (Ivancevich et al., 2011). Several types of research have examined the impact that sad and anxious people have on negotiation and the results. It is vital to point out that these studies have unanimously agreed that both sadness and anxiety affect negotiation negatively. Studies on sadness have revealed that it reduces cooperation and subsequently, raises the level of competition during negotiations (Forgas, 1998). Forgas (2002) that sadness leads to pessimism hence the difficulties in negotiations. In this regard, pessimistic people of lack the self-drive to create specific negotiation plans and often exhibit high expectations in a negotiation process (Forgas, 1998). Anxiety also affects negotiation process and performance (Brooks Schweitzer, 2011). Anxiety is believed to enhance peoples desires to accept deals that are offered to them while sad people are associated with reduced deal-making. According to Brooks Schweitzer (2011), anxiety influences an individuals first offers because will tend to give a lower initial offer during negotiations. Studies have shown motivation that underlies poor negotiation performance is understood in the context of the external environment and the individual. According to Forgas (1998), the influence of sadness on negotiation is purely driven by pessimism as a result of negative ideas. On the other hand, anxiety influences negotiation through a reduction in self-confidence (Brooks Schweitzer, 2011). Effect of Sadness and Anxiety on Requests and Advice It is worth noting that requests and advice are critical in interpersonal interaction in an organization because they enhance information acquisition for making informed decisions (Gino et al. 2012). Some studies have revealed that sadness and anxiety influence how individuals seek advice and make requests in an organization. How people frame their requests and seek for advice can influence others in the organization as they determine whether or not the actions are valid (Yukl, Seifert Chavez, 2008). Requests ought to be direct and polite as this makes it easier for one to get what one wants with relative ease (Forgas, 2002). Numerous studies have shown that sadness has an influence on framing of a request (Forgas, 1999a, 1999b). The mood is associated with the enhanced extent to which individuals come up with polite and elaborate, but requests that are less direct (Forgas, 1999a, 1999b). This assertion is consistent with the DADE model where individuals who are sad get the motivati on to seek for pleasure (Ragunathan Corfman, 2004; Ragunathan, Corfman Pham, 2006). Given this, such individuals avoid unpleasant interactions with impolite (Forgas, 1999a). This behavior shows that there is often avoidance of unpleasant interactions which results in a wider effect on organizational behavior. According to Behfar, Peterson, Mannix, Trochim (2008), such effects may be felt in times of conflict resolution and management in an organization. There is a plethora of literature that shows that sadness may lead to a situation where people fail to make a request but anxiety enhances individuals propensity to seek for advice or advice others in an organization (Gino et al., 2012). Numerous of research conducted by Gino et al. (2012) on the multidimensional analysis on how anxiety influences advice-seeking behavior, they found out that anxiety increases the tendency to seek advice. Risky Decisions According to Bernstein (1996), good perception and risk management is paramount in contributing to proper organizational functioning. It is worth noting that there is the need to calculate risks as to come up with improved production, making huge profits, and acquisition of a bigger market share (Bernstein, 1996). On the other hand, when employees in an organization ignore risks, negative consequences are bound to be experienced (Bernstein, 1996). Given this, it is vital for employees tasked with making decisions to be accurate in their judgments. The ability to make a sound judgment is affected by sadness and anxiety due to biases. As it was pointed out, Ragunathan et al. (2006) note that the DADE model opines that anxious people are synonymous with risk avoidance. Epstein (1998) points out that in this context, risks are construed to challenges, opportunities, or threats. There is sufficient evidence that anxiety causes individuals to avoid risks as a result of the perception of risk as threats (Eysenck, Mogg, May, Richards, Mathews, 1991). Furthermore, anxiety has been linked the perception of risks as more like in an organization or their private lives. Gasper Clore (1998) noted that people who suffer from anxiety often believe that unpleasant events are likely to occur always. MacLeod Rutherford (1992) argues that anxiety can redirect peoples attention to potential threats. This view is countered by (Matthews, Panganiban Hudlicka, 2010) who contend that this situation does not always take place in the work environment and decision-making circumstances. Most recently, there are studies that have examined how anxiety influences decision-making more so on the risk-sensitive work environment. Anxiety has been associated with risky decisions. This is in contrast to the common notion that anxiety contributes to risky decision-making. Effect of Sadness and Anxiety on Economic Decisions It is imperative to note that making the prudent financial decision is a determinant of success in any organization. It suffices to point out that affective state may have the influence on such decisions. There are studies that have supported the notion that sadness and anxiety can impact on economic decisions that are set to be made in popular behavioral economic realms. Learner et al. (2004) showed that sadness reverses the endowment effect. According to Kahneman, Knetsch Thaler (1990), endowment effect has described a state in which an individual proposes lower buying price as compared to the selling price for the same product. This view is contradicted by Learner et al. (2004) that indicate that sad people lowered selling prices of their products while increasing the buying price. There are studies that effectively linked anxiety to loss-framing. Anxious people appear will rather take the risk so as to avoid losses instead of waiting to make profits or gains (Belsky Gilovich, 1 999). It suffices to mention that anxiety increases loss-framing effect (Kahneman Tversky, 1979; Hartley Phelps, 2012). Reducing the effect of Mood Several studies have pointed out the dimension and magnitude of the negative effects of sadness and anxiety on decision-making and organizational behavior. As a result of this, it is imperative to seek for solutions to reduce the effects of sadness and anxiety on performance and organizational growth. Going by the available literature, there are two main strategies that can be applied in reducing the negative effects of sadness and anxiety on performance and organizational growth. In the first place, all interventions are often aimed at stress reduction in an organization contribute a lot to less sadness and anxiety because stress can lead to these moods (Cotton, 1995). Secondly, Clore et al. (2001) argues that increasing self-awareness among people is said to be a strategy in reducing sadness and anxiety which have the negative impact on decision-making and judgment. Schwarz Clore (1983) argues that in circumstances where individuals are made to know specific reasons that make them feel they way they do, they may deem it not relevant at all and consequently expunge it. Conclusion There is a plethora of empirical literature on the impact of anxiety and sadness on the organizational behavior. From the ensuing discussion, it is very clear that sadness and anxiety have great influence on organizational behavior. Anxiety and sadness have been determined to affect judgment and decision-making within an organization. Further, there is sufficient evidence that people in one way or another experience changes in their mood. It is worth noting that every organization is competing to be productive. Organizations can only attain a competitive edge when there is good organizational behavior. Making the optimal decision, sound judgment, proper negotiation, and proper requests and advice-seeking behavior are integral in organizational growth and development. In this endeavor, it is vital that organizations ways in which anxiety and sadness affect its business. In a nutshell, organizations should work towards enhancing self-awareness and stress reduction among employee References Ambady, N., Gray, H. M. (2002). On being sad and mistaken: Mood effects on the accuracy of thin-slice judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 947- 961. doi: 10.1037//0022-3518.104.22.1687 Ashkanasy, N. M., Zerbe, W. J., Hrtel, C. E. J. (Eds.) (2000). Emotions in the workplace: Research, theory, and practice. Westport, CT: Quorum Books. Behfar, K. J., Peterson, R. S., Mannix, E. A., Trochim, W. M. K. (2008). 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Bias in interpretation of ambiguous sentences related to threat in anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 144-150. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.100.2.144 Eysenck, M. W., Payne, S., Santos, R. (2006). Anxiety and depression: Past, present, and future events. Cognition and Emotion, 20, 274-294. doi: 10.1080/02699930500220066 Forgas, J. P. (1990). Affective influences on individual and group judgments. European Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 441-453. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2420200506 Forgas, J. P. (1995). Mood and judgment: The affect infusion model (AIM). Psychological Bulletin, 117, 39-66. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.117.1.39 Forgas, J. P. (1998). On feeling good and getting your own way: Mood effects on negotiation strategies and outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 565-577. doi: 10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1995 Forgas, J. P. (1999a).On feeling good and being rude: Affective influences on language use and request formulations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 928-939. doi: 10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.528 Forgas, J. P. (1999b). Feeling and speaking: Mood effects on verbal communication strategies. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 850-863. doi: 10.1177/0146167299025007007 Forgas, J. P. (2002). Feeling and doing: Affective influences on interpersonal behaviour. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 1-28. doi: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1301_01 Forgas, J. P., Bower, G. H. (1987). Mood effects on person-perception judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 53-60. doi: 10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.206 Forgas, J. P., George, J. M. (2001). Affective influences on judgments and behavior in organizations: An information processing perspective. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86, 3-34. doi: 10.1006/obhd.2001.2971 Gasper, K., Clore, G. L. (1998). The persistent use of negative affect by anxious individuals to estimate risk. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1350-1363. doi: 10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.110 Gasper, K., Clore, G. L. (2000). Do you have to pay attention to your feelings to be influenced by them? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 698-711. doi: 10.1177/0146167200268005 Gino, F., Brooks, A. W., Schweitzer, M. E. (2012). Anxiety, advice, and the ability to discern: Feeling anxious motivates individuals to seek and use advice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 497-512. doi: 10.1037/a0026413 Hartley, C. A., Phelps, E. A. (2012). Anxiety and decisions-making. Biological Psychiatry, 72, 113-118. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.12.027 Ivancevich, J. M., Konopaske, R., Matteson, M. T. (2011). Organizational behaviour and management (9th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Kahneman, D. Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica, 47, 263-291. Retrieved from October 8, 2012 from JSTOR Kahneman, D., Knetsch, J. L., Thaler R. H. (1990). Experimental tests of the endowment effect and the Coase Theorem. Journal of Political Economy, 98, 1325-1348. Retrieved from October 8, 2012 from JSTOR Lambert, A. J., Khan, S. R., Lickel, B. A., Fricke, K. (1997). Mood and the correction of positive versus negative stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1002-1016. doi: 10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1682 Lagerveld, S. E., Bltmann, U., Franche, R. L., van Dijk, F. J. H., Vlasveld, M. C., van der Feltz-Cornelis, C. M. Nieuwenhuijsen, K. (2010). Factors associated with work participation and work functioning in depressed workers: A systematic review. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 20, 275-292. doi: 10.1007/s10926-009-9224-x Learner, J. S., Small, D. A., Loewenstein, G. (2004). Heart strings and purse strings: Carryover effects of emotions on economic decisions. Psychological Science, 15, 337-341. doi: 10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00679.x MacLeod, C., Rutherford, E. M. (1992). Anxiety and the selective processing of emotional information: Mediating roles of awareness, trait and state variables, and personal relevance of stimulus materials. Behavior Research and Therapy, 30, 479-491. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(92)90032-C Maner, J. K., Richey, J. A., Cromer, K., Mallott, M., Lejuez, C. W., Joiner, T. E., Schmidt, N. B. (2007). Dispositional anxiety and risk-avoidant decision-making. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 665-675. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2006.08.016 Martin, A., Sanderson, K., Cocker, F. (2009). Meta-analysis of the effects of health promotion intervention in the workplace on depression and anxiety symptoms. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment Health, 35, 7-18. Retrieved from August 3, 2012 from JSTOR. Matthews, G., Panganiban, A. R., Hudlicka, E. (2010). Anxiety and selective attention to threat in tactical decision-making. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 949-954. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.09.005 Mayer, J. D., Gaschke, Y. N., Braverman, D. L., Evans, T. W. (1992). Mood-congruent judgment is a general effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 119-132.doi: 10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.124 McCarthy, J., Goffin. R. (2004). Measuring job interview anxiety: Beyond weak knees and sweaty palms.Personnel Psychology, 57, 607-637. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2004.00002.x Morgan, J. I., Jones, F. A., Harris, P. R. (in press). Direct and indirect effects of mood on risk decision making in safety-critical workers. Accident Analysis and Prevention. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2012.05.026 Miu, A. C., Heilman, R. M., Houser, D. (2008). Anxiety impairs decision-making: Psychophysiological evidence from an Iowa Gambling Task. Biological Psychology, 77, 353-358. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2007.11.010 Nguyen, H-H., D., Ryan, A. M. (2008). Does stereotype threat affect test performance of minorities and women? A meta-analysis of experimental evidence. 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Thursday, March 5, 2020
Marketing Strategy of Mcdonalds Essays Marketing Strategy of Mcdonalds Paper Marketing Strategy of Mcdonalds Paper Introduction: McDonalds is one of the biggest fast food companies in the market share today. It has been running in over 119 countries, as well as they have acquired over 31,000 restaurants in the world now. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s brand mission is to be customersÃ¢â¬â¢ favourite place and way to eat, they are aligned around a global strategy called the Ã¢â¬ËPlan to WinÃ¢â¬â¢, they also committed to continuously improving their operations and enhancing their customersÃ¢â¬â¢ experience. As we all know that McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s had successfully achieved their goal through out the years. (aboutmcdonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s, 2012) Apart from this, as McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is a worldwide company, they also had the social responsibility to return the community; therefore, the Ã¢â¬ËRonald McDonald House CharitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ was established to build up their social image. Unfortunately, the market share is not only for McDonalds because there are still a lot other competitors in the market, like KFC and Burger King. So, McDonalds need a good marketing strategy to conquer other enemies and retain their position because the competition in the market is hypercompetitive. As all we know, the successful marketing strategy for McDonalds is based on their innovative and creative promotion and great marketing research in order to keep consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s loyalty. Eventually, this project will examine the success through three main sessions, which are marketing research, the marketing mix and the competitor strategies. Marketing Research: Every marketing strategy starts with the marketing research. In the fast food market, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s confronts competition form other businesses, in order to maintain the market share, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s needs to identify the needs and wants of customers, and creating the right marketing mix in order to keep customersÃ¢â¬â¢ loyalty so as to build up a long term relationship with their customers. Marketing research helps identifying the change of customersÃ¢â¬â¢ wills and anticipates how the changes will affect the sales figure. 1. Research method Market researches done by McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s consider everything that affect buying decisions. (The times 100, 2012) The buying decisions could be affected by a wide range of factors, including psychological factors, like Ã¢â¬Ëwhat image does the product giveÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëhow the consumer feels when purchasingÃ¢â¬â¢. Next, the economy changes could also affect the buying decisions, for example, the rising living standards. According to Salvam (2009), McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s used both qualitative and quantitative data are developed in the research activities. After McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s had collect the data, they will identify how appropriate the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products are for the future; the quality of employees and how well trained they are to offer the best services to customer and the financial resources that available for marketing etc. 2. Customer satisfaction The number of customers in the market is limited; it is essential to retain people once they have become customers to build long-term and successful business. The marketing research helps McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s to indentify the types of customers and determine the type of products and services offered, price range, promotion strategies and even where the restaurants located. The Ã¢â¬ËHappy MealÃ¢â¬â¢ is one of the famous product line McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s had produced, which targeted to young customers, the Happy Meal is served with food and a toy, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s ally with Hollywood studios such as Walt Disney, consequently, the Happy meal had become one of the most successful childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural icons on the globe (Hong, 2009) and brings about a huge income to McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s every single year. Apart from this, to respond the global criticism and the negative effect of the documentary Ã¢â¬ËSuper Size MeÃ¢â¬â¢ on McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s are selling junk food, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s had introduce the more healthy food, such as salad and fruits to their menu, so as to associate their brand image with healthier food. This is one of the examples that shows how McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s consider the social factor. These are all the examples of what McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s done to achieve the needs and wants of customers. How McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s influences their customers Ã¢â¬â The marketing mix It is known that McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s used both polycentric and geocentric approach in creating their marketing mix. 1. Product It is known that most products go through a Ã¢â¬Ëproduct life cycleÃ¢â¬â¢, which sees all kinds of product will eventually go to the Ã¢â¬ËdeclineÃ¢â¬â¢ stage. The marketing research discussed in the pervious part is vitally important to understand the changing wants and needs of customers. McDonalds constantly works to satisfy customers by developing new products to appeal them. For example, McDonalds introduced a variety of salads to appeal to the healthier conscious customers (Yahoo! Contributor Network, 2005), and recently, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s added a new product line named Ã¢â¬Ëgreat taste of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢ so as to attract young customers. (UK McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s, 2012) 2. Price As we all know that customers draw their own mental picture of what a product is worth, therefore, it is important for McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s to know the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of value. (Brassington and Pettitt, 2006) McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s will change their product price time to time based on the result of the marketing research, and offer the most reasonable price for the customers. 3. Promotions Every company has their own way to promote their products; McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is no different. The promotion strategy of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s could be classified into two aspects, which are the advertising promotion and sales promotion. 3. 1 Advertisement Advertisement is conducted on TV, radio, website, poster site, and all kinds of media that around our daily life. It is known that positive emotion can be very effective in creating memorable and persuasive messages (Brassington and Pettitt, 2006), this is also why the cheerful senses are always used in McDonaldsÃ¢â¬â¢ commercials. Apart from this, customer-oriented appeals are also used in McDonaldsÃ¢â¬â¢ advertisement. To advertise different types of customers, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s had different strategies, for example, they had co-operate with Walt Disney to produce toys that can attract children. Toy giveaways are a major promotion weapon in McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s battle in the fast-food market share. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s have long put toys in kidÃ¢â¬â¢s meal to build traffic and encourage repeat visit from families. 3. 2 Sales Promotion McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s had developed numerous of effective promotional campaign to attract more customers, and sales promotion is an aspect that they heavily rely on. It is believed that by adding extra value to the product, over and above the normal product offering, thus creating an extra inducement to consumers to buy or try them. (Brassington and Pettitt, 2006) McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy is to offer quality food quickly to customers at a good value. The pricing structure for McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s over years has supported this message, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has ran many promotions to increase product sales. For instance, they offer student offer, which gives out free hamburger, cheeseburger or Ã¢â¬ËMcFlurry OriginalÃ¢â¬â¢ with the customers purchase an Ã¢â¬ËExtra Value MealÃ¢â¬â¢ with a valid student ID card. Furthermore, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s also offer different types of coupons frequently in order to stimulate the demand and increase customersÃ¢â¬â¢ interest and desire to purchase their products. (McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s, 2012) 4. Place Place, is about the physical location and the distribution points for products. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s had their special menu in different shops all over the world. For instance, Maharaja McBurger is a vegetarian burger marketed in India; Prosperity Burger is popular in China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore; McDonalds offers Halal food in Muslim countries such as Saudi Arabia, UAE, Kuwait, Indonesia, Malaysia etc. Competitor Strategies: Nowadays, many fast food shops are building up in the market, which means the market share for fast food shop is becoming more competitive. As we all know, no company can be successful without a good competitor strategy. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has become one of the well-known and famous fast food companies today because they have had an innovated and effective competitor strategy to conquer their enemies The major competitors of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s included Burger King, DoctorÃ¢â¬â¢s Associates and Yumburger. RQ Admit Company, 2012) Among all of the competitors strategies McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s had applied, there are three main obvious ideas, which can help them establishing a good reputation and popularity in the market. New Production Strategy: As McDonalds had expanded internationally, in order to keep consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s loyalty and attract peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s attention, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s designs creative productions regularly which are both special and delicious, such as Ã¢â¬Ëshake shake chipsÃ¢â¬â¢ and new version of burger. Clark, 2012) Furthermore, in order to spread further their market, they provided vegetarian food, which allowed customers that are vegetarian to purchase their product. Apart from this, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has already established a great reputation in the market; therefore, they will be always exploiting their brandÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation and consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to promote the new product. This is one of the effective ways, which could assist customers to gain their popularity and promote their new production. Healthy Food strategy: In this new generation, a new demand in the market has appeared. People are now craving for a healthy life and are more willing to purchase healthier food. Thus, on purpose of reaching customersÃ¢â¬â¢ new demand, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s had change their products from the traditional high-fat and oily food to food that contained lower calories and fat, as well as they had begun to provide some new choices of food, which are much healthier and more palatable, such as snack size fruit, walnut salad and yogurt parfait. (HubPages, 2012) Charity strategy: Ronald McDonald House Charities (RMDH) is one of the independent and egistered charities, whose mission is to provide comfort and safety place and environment for poor family and some ill or injured children. (McDonalds, 2012) There are some reasons why they built a charity. First of all, it is one of the unique strategies, which can make people feel that they have associated with the donation of the charity, after they purchased the food. Therefore, their reputation and population will increase in the mar ket and this will help McDonald creating a more positive image and change peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s rooted negative thought on fast food industry. Furthermore, RMDH can build up their brand name with co-operating with some charities to organize some activities. This is because it is one of the essential ways to let more people to be interested in McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. Thus, they can keep being one of the huge groups in the marketing share. Conclusion There is no doubt that McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is a successful company. The success of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s could be seen in the comprehensive and effective marketing research, the purposeful marketing mix created that satisfied customers needs and wants and the overwhelming competitor strategies, which helped McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s to keep their market share. Reference: 1. Brassington, F. and Pettitt, S. , 2006. Principles of Marketing. England: Person Education Limited. 2. Clark, W. , 2012. Product Development Strategy for McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s[online]. United Stated: Hearst Communications Inc.. Available from: http://smallbusiness. chron. com/product-development-strategy-mcdonalds-12207. html [Accessed 27 April 2012] 3. Hong, J. W. , 2009. Power of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËHappy MealÃ¢â¬â¢: Globalization of American Culture and Value. The Global Studies Journal. 2(2), pp. 143-154 4. Hubpages, 2012. Low Calorie and Healthy Choices at McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s[online]. United State: HubPages Inc.. Available from: http://pbdietitian. hubpages. com/hub/low-calorie-and-healthy-choices-at-McDonalds [Accessed 22 April 2012] 5. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s, 2012. Ronald McDonald House Charities[online]. United Kingdom: McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. Available from: mcdonalds. co. uk/ukhome/Ourworld/Ronald-McDonald-House-Charities. html [Accessed 25 April 2012] 6. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s, 2012. Mission and Value[online]. United Kingdom: McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. Available from: aboutmcdonalds. com/mcd/our_company/mission_and_values. html [Accessed 23 April 2012] Yahoo! Contributor Network. , 2005. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s Strategic Marketing Mix. [online] http://voices. ahoo. com/mcdonalds-strategic-marketing-mix-372441. html? cat=4 7. R Q Amit Company, 2010. Marketing Ã¢â¬â McDonaldsÃ¢â¬â¢ Style[online]. United State: R Q Amit Company. Available from: http://essayexpert. qapacity. com/financial-sucess/4604/marketing-mcdonalds-style/ [Accessed 25 April 2012]. 8. Salvam, P. , 2009. Expansion of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s to re gional markets. Management committee, 1, pp,1-10 9. The times 100. , 2012. The marketing process Ã¢â¬â A McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurants case study. [online] http://businesscasestudies. co. uk/mcdonalds-restaurants/the-marketing-process/the-marketing-mix-and-market-research. html
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Medical Law - Essay Example s are legally considered to be negligent in their work, if their actions are not in accordance with what is expected of a medical professional with analogous skill and competence. The general opinion is that negligence claims originate due to inadequate communication by medical professionals, in situations involving medical complications. Physicians who do not caution their patients, in cases where the results prove to be serious, are deemed to guilty of negligence1. The duties of doctors are set out in medical ethics or deontology. Doctors are under a duty to protect the best interests of their patients, protect third parties and maintain confidentiality. The Mental Health Act and the ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Act of the United Kingdom specify the professional ethics to be followed by medical practitioners2. However, all the duties of doctors are not enshrined in a single Act, and there are several applicable acts. The General Medical Council maintains the list of duties that doctors are required to follow in an ethical manner3. Doctors have to provide medical care that corresponds to the medical status established by general medical opinion. Medical practitioners have to take the utmost care while discharging their duties. Doctors have to ensure that their medical treatment does not infringe the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom. This was established in Mallette v. Shulman. In that case, the plaintiff was a JehovahÃ¢â¬â¢s Witness. The doctor at the clinic had given her a blood transfusion in order to save her life4. The plaintiff sued the defendants on charges of battery, and the trial court accepted her plaint. The appellate court also upheld this decision; and it became very clear that patients were at liberty to choose any particular medical treatment. It was also established, that patients could refuse to accept treatment; even though such treatment would save their life5. Doctors are under a legal obligation to provide patients with sufficient information about their disease.